Track record with Helpful Technology
Track record with Helpful Technology
There’s no written evidence which can inform us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the necessity and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing answers to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.
The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the utilization of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The word educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational technology is connected with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Utilization of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken when it comes to these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.
The 3rd stage of educational technology is associated with the development of mass media which often led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) employed for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized procedure for instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a fresh dimension to educational technology. A method of self-learning centered on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.
The latest notion of educational technology is influenced by the thought of system engineering or system approach which centers on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the utilization of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic method of designing, carrying out and evaluating the sum total procedure for teaching and learning when it comes to specific objectives centered on research.
Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, regardless of the uncertainty of the origin of the definition of, can be traced back again to the full time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of varied handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another throughout the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of familiarity with the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. Throughout the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were produced from many different hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the initial steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.
Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in various museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, like the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the look of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the data of iron smelting technology to lower the price of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the final period prior to the development of written scripts.
Educational technology during the time scale of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back again to the full time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. Atlanta divorce attorneys stage data capture systems of human civilization, you can find an instructional technique or group of procedures meant to implement a specific culture that have been also supported by quantity of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more technical became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour meant to run an informed society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in technology and engineering was included with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies on earth to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was situated in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished across the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India along with some area of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost section of Balochistan, Iran).
There’s a long haul controversy to be certain about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script seemingly have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from directly to left. The majority of the writing was available on seals and sealings that have been probably used in trade and official & administrative work.
Harappan people had the data of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the initial on earth to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists discovered that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that particular of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as method of visual aids.
Ancient Egyptian language was at one time among the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the true things such as birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are referred to as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs that have been discovered and rescued latter on offers the proof existence of many types of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the first 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a good extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing method of getting rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a primary aspect in the development of printing technology.
The invention of the printing press was taken invest approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a primary developmental aspect in the annals of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the necessity of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.
In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things such as the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with several illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.
The season 1873 may certainly be a landmark in the first history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level where an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a powerful impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to supply for the proper sequencing of subject material for every person learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s notion of prepared child centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a broad purpose computing device laid the foundation of the present day computer and in 1943, the initial computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in that the computer functions essentially as a tutor along with the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.
At first of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace for making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a psychiatrist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the applying of the data derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of accomplishing so.
Although the initial practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be utilized primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is employed for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the initial time. It is to be cared that in 1960, consequently of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. This way, the start of educational technology took invest 1960 from America and Russia and now it’s reached England, Europe and India.
In the period of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.